2019-06-28·Journal of Biological Chemistry2区 · 生物学
Retinoid receptor-based signaling plays a role in voltage-dependent inhibition of invertebrate voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
2区 · 生物学
作者: de Hoog, Eric ; Lukewich, Mark K. ; Spencer, Gaynor E.
The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) mediate the cellular effects of retinoids (derivatives of vitamin A). Both RAR and RXR signaling events are implicated in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, retinoids can interact with calcium signaling during homeostatic plasticity. We recently provided evidence that retinoids attenuate calcium current (ICa) through neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). We now examined the possibility that constitutive activity of neuronal RXR and/or RAR alters calcium influx via the VGCCs. We found that in neurons of the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis, two different RXR antagonists (PA452 and HX531) had independent and opposing effects on ICa that were also time-dependent; whereas the RXR pan-antagonist PA452 enhanced ICa, HX531 reduced ICa Interestingly, this effect of HX531 occurred through voltage-dependent inhibition of VGCCs, a phenomenon known to influence neurotransmitter release from neurons. This inhibition appeared to be independent of G proteins and was largely restricted to Cav2 Ca2+ channels. Of note, an RAR pan-antagonist, LE540, also inhibited ICa but produced G protein-dependent, voltage-dependent inhibition of VGCCs. These findings provide evidence that retinoid receptors interact with G proteins in neurons and suggest mechanisms by which retinoids might affect synaptic calcium signaling.
2019-01-01·Journal of natural medicines4区 · 医学
Neuroprotective effect of naturally occurring RXR agonists isolated from Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep. on amyloid-β-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
Neuronal cell death induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers is implicated in neuronal degeneration and is a leading cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, to identify effective therapeutic agents for AD, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of two naturally occurring retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists (SPF1 and SPF2), isolated from the root of Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep., on the Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity against nerve growth factor-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Pretreatment with SPFs significantly prevented Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, similarly to the synthetic RXR agonist bexarotene. These effects were blocked by the RXR antagonist PA452. When the effects of SPFs were studied in the presence of the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901317, the protective effects of SPFs were enhanced, suggesting that RXR/LXR heterodimers may play a key role in the neuroprotective effects of SPFs. SPFs and T0901317 induced ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) protein expression in PC12 cells when administered alone or in combination. Intriguingly, a functional inhibitor of ABCA1 cyclosporine A negated the neuroprotective effects of SPFs or T0901317. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the RXR agonists SPF1 and SPF2 protect PC12 cells from Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in an RXR-dependent manner and that their effects are markedly enhanced by the LXR agonist T0901317, in part related to ABCA1 function. These results suggest a novel approach to the treatment or prevention of AD.
2017-03-01·Journal of Hepatology1区 · 医学
Human stem cell-derived hepatocytes as a model for hepatitis B virus infection, spreading and virus-host interactions
1区 · 医学
作者: Xia, Yuchen ; Carpentier, Arnaud ; Cheng, Xiaoming ; Block, Peter Daniel ; Zhao, Yao ; Zhang, Zhensheng ; Protzer, Ulrike ; Liang, T. Jake
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
One major obstacle of hepatitis B virus (HBV) research is the lack of efficient cell culture system permissive for viral infection and replication. The aim of our study was to establish a robust HBV infection model by using hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells.
HLCs were differentiated from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Maturation of hepatocyte functions was determined. After HBV infection, total viral DNA, cccDNA, total viral RNA, pgRNA, HBeAg and HBsAg were measured.
More than 90% of the HLCs expressed strong signals of human hepatocyte markers, like albumin, as well as known host factors required for HBV infection, suggesting that these cells possessed key features of mature hepatocytes. Notably, HLCs expressed the viral receptor sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide more stably than primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). HLCs supported robust infection and some spreading of HBV. Finally, by using this model, we identified two host-targeting agents, genistin and PA452, as novel antivirals.
Stem cell-derived HLCs fully support HBV infection. This novel HLC HBV infection model offers a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the molecular details of the HBV life cycle; to further characterize virus-host interactions and to define new targets for HBV curative treatment.
Our study used human pluripotent stem cells to develop hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) capable of expressing hepatocyte markers and host factors important for HBV infection. These cells fully support HBV infection and virus-host interactions, allowing for the identification of two novel antiviral agents. Thus, stem cell-derived HLCs provide a highly physiologically relevant system to advance our understanding of viral life cycle and provide a new tool for antiviral drug screening and development.