A Pilot Trial of an Accelerated Immunization Schedule With ALVAC-pp65 (vCP260) for Inducing CMV-Specific Immunity in Stem Cell Allotransplant Donors and Healthy Volunteers
This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new vaccine, ALVAC-pp65, in boosting immunity to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in stem cell transplant donors. CMV is a member of the herpesvirus group, which includes herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox), and Epstein-Barr virus (which causes infectious mononucleosis). Most adults are infected with CMV, but a healthy immune system keeps the virus in check, so that it does not cause harm. In people with a weakened immune system, such as transplant recipients, the virus can become reactivated. Medications for treating the infection may cause low blood counts and kidney damage, and, in some cases, the virus may cause death. The ALVAC-pp65 vaccine is intended to improve immunity against CMV in stem cell donors and thereby prevent its reactivation in recipients. It is made from a virus that ordinarily infects canaries. The virus is weakened so that it cannot infect the person who receives it, and it is modified to carry a copy of a CMV gene called pp65. This gene instructs cells to make CMV proteins that the vaccine recipient's immune system can produce antibodies to, thus conferring immunity to the disease. Persons 18 years of age or older who are scheduled to donate stem cells for a patient in an NIH protocol and who are not allergic to eggs, egg products, or other vaccines, may be eligible for this study. Candidates are screened with a medical history, physical examination, and blood tests. Participants receive three vaccinations one week apart beginning at least 3 weeks before the scheduled stem cell donation. They are observed for 30 minutes after each vaccination to look for any immediate side effects of the vaccine. Approximately 3 tablespoons of blood are drawn before each vaccination and 1 week after the last vaccination to evaluate vaccine safety. Blood samples are also collected at the screening evaluation, 3 weeks after the start of vaccination, and 3 months after the last vaccination to check for CMV immunity. Participants keep a diary, recording any reactions to the vaccine and any change in medications. They are contacted by telephone for follow-up 3 months after the last vaccination to report any additional symptoms.
A simple and efficient method of generating HCMV pp65-specific T cells using overlapping peptides.
4区 · 医学
作者: S-U Hwang ; J-H Lee ; S-Y Choi ; Y-T Lee ; S-Y Park ; H S Lee ; J W Jae ; N-Ch Jung ; Y Wang ; D-S Lim
The methods for expansion of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T lymphocytes are limited due to the complex culture process, long culture duration, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction. Here, we report that in vitro stimulation with pp65 kDa phosphoprotein (pp65)-derived overlapping synthetic peptides rapidly generates large numbers of HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) regardless of HLA type. Treatment of PBMCs from healthy volunteers expressing HLA-A*02:01 or HLA-A*24:02 with 138 pp65 overlapping peptides (OLP) resulted in an expansion of HCMV pp65 NLVPMVATV (NLV) pentamer-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes that expressed interferon (IFN)-γ, but the pp65 NLV peptide did not generate HCMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in PBMCs obtained from an HLA-A*24:02 donor due to HLA restriction. The OLP-induced T lymphocytes specific for HCMV derived from PBMCs of HLA-A*02:01- and HLA-A*24:02-expressing donors showed effective cytolytic responses against target cells loaded with OLP or the NLV epitope, but pp65 NLV peptide-induced T lymphocytes did not. Phenotypic analyses demonstrated that OLP increased the frequency of CD3+ CD8+ cells, but not CD3+ CD4+, CD14+, or CD56+ cells, in donor PBMCs. Thus, this study provides evidence that in vitro stimulation with OLP efficiently generates sufficient numbers of HCMV pp65-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy. Keywords: human cytomegalovirus; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; overlapping peptides; pp65; cytotoxicity.
2018-08-01·Journal of virology2区 · 医学
Efficient Delivery of Human Cytomegalovirus T Cell Antigens by Attenuated Sendai Virus Vectors.
2区 · 医学
作者: Richard Kiener ; Markus Fleischmann ; Marian Alexander Wiegand ; Niels A W Lemmermann ; Christiane Schwegler ; Christine Kaufmann ; Angelique Renzaho ; Simone Thomas ; Eva Felder ; Hans Helmut Niller ; Benedikt Asbach ; Ralf Wagner
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a major cause of clinical complications during pregnancy as well as immunosuppression, and the licensing of a protective HCMV vaccine remains an unmet global need. Here, we designed and validated novel Sendai virus (SeV) vectors delivering the T cell immunogens IE-1 and pp65. To enhance vector safety, we used a replication-deficient strain (rdSeV) that infects target cells in a nonproductive manner while retaining viral gene expression. In this study, we explored the impact that transduction with rdSeV has on human dendritic cells (DCs) by comparing it to the parental, replication-competent Sendai virus strain (rcSeV) as well as the poxvirus strain modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA). We found that wild-type SeV is capable of replicating to high titers in DCs while rdSeV infects cells abortively. Due to the higher degree of attenuation, IE-1 and pp65 protein levels mediated by rdSeV after infection of DCs were markedly reduced compared to those of the parental Sendai virus recombinants, but antigen-specific restimulation of T cell clones was not negatively affected by this. Importantly, rdSeV showed reduced cytotoxic effects compared to rcSeV and MVA and was capable of mediating DC maturation as well as secretion of alpha interferon and interleukin-6. Finally, in a challenge model with a murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) strain carrying an HCMV pp65 peptide, we found that viral replication was restricted if mice were previously vaccinated with rdSeV-pp65. Taken together, these data demonstrate that rdSeV has great potential as a vector system for the delivery of HCMV immunogens.IMPORTANCE HCMV is a highly prevalent betaherpesvirus that establishes lifelong latency after primary infection. Congenital HCMV infection is the most common viral complication in newborns, causing a number of late sequelae ranging from impaired hearing to mental retardation. At the same time, managing HCMV reactivation during immunosuppression remains a major hurdle in posttransplant care. Since options for the treatment of HCMV infection are still limited, the development of a vaccine to confine HCMV-related morbidities is urgently needed. We generated new vaccine candidates in which the main targets of T cell immunity during natural HCMV infection, IE-1 and pp65, are delivered by a replication-deficient, Sendai virus-based vector system. In addition to classical prophylactic vaccine concepts, these vectors could also be used for therapeutic applications, thereby expanding preexisting immunity in high-risk groups such as transplant recipients or for immunotherapy of glioblastomas expressing HCMV antigens.
2018-03-14·Vaccine3区 · 医学
Multi-antigenic human cytomegalovirus mRNA vaccines that elicit potent humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
3区 · 医学
作者: Shinu John ; Olga Yuzhakov ; Angela Woods ; Jessica Deterling ; Kimberly Hassett ; Christine A Shaw ; Giuseppe Ciaramella
A cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine that is effective at preventing congenital infection and reducing CMV disease in transplant patients remains a high priority as no approved vaccines exist. While the precise correlates of protection are unknown, neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cells have been implicated in controlling infection. We demonstrate that the immunization of mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) encapsulating modified mRNA encoding CMV glycoproteins gB and pentameric complex (PC) elicit potent and durable neutralizing antibody titers. Since the protective correlates in pregnant women and transplant recipients may differ, we developed an additional mRNA vaccine expressing the immunodominant CMV T cell antigen pp65. Administration of pp65 vaccine with PC and gB elicited robust multi-antigenic T cell responses in mice. Our data demonstrate that mRNA/LNP is a versatile platform that enables the development of vaccination strategies that could prevent CMV infection and consequent disease in different target populations.