The REACH trial is a prospective multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with blinded end-point adjudication. Participants are randomized (1:1) to receive either sodium aescinate or matching placebo (0.9% saline). The primary outcome is the absolute volume of PHE evaluated based on brain CT image on day 14 after ICH.
2023-06-05·Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Sodium aescinate improve behavioral performance by inhibiting dorsal raphe nucleus NLRP3 inflammasome in Post-traumatic stress disorder Rat Model.
作者: Ting Mei ; Linchuan Ma ; Fanzhen Kong
Growing evidence suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hippocampus and amygdala is involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD. Our previous studies have demonstrated that apoptosis of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contributes to the pathological progression of PTSD. Recent studies by others have shown that in brain injury sodium aescinate (SA) has a protective effect on neurons by inhibiting inflammatory response pathways, thereby relieving symptoms. Here, we extend the therapeutic effects of SA to PTSD rats. We found that PTSD was associated with significant activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in DRN, whereas administration of SA significantly inhibited DRN NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduced DRN apoptosis level. SA also improved learning and memory ability and reduced anxiety and depression level in PTSD rats. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome activation in DRN of PTSD rats impaired mitochondria function by inhibiting ATP synthesis and increasing ROS production, whereas SA can effectively reverse the pathological progression of mitochondria. We recommend SA as a new candidate for the pharmacological treatment of PTSD.
2023-01-01·Frontiers in pharmacology
Sodium aescinate inhibits microglia activation through NF-κB pathway and exerts neuroprotective effect.
作者: Fei Xu ; Yiguo Jiang ; Xiaoyu Wang ; Li Shen ; Yan Yan ; Dongkai Guo ; Cheng Wang
Background: Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system that sense environmental changes and maintain central nervous system homeostasis. Dysfunctional microglia produce toxic mediators that lead to neuronal death. Recent studies suggest that Sodium Aescinate has a neuroprotective effect. However, it is unclear whether Sodium Aescinate exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting activation of microglia. Method: Traumatic brain injury and lipopolysaccharide neuroinflammation model were used to evaluate the microglia activation in vivo. BV2 and primary microglia cells were used to assess the microglia activation in vitro. Molecular docking technique was used to predict the binding energy of Sodium Aescinate to NF-κB signaling pathway proteins. Result: Sodium Aescinate inhibited microglial activation in-vivo and in-vitro. Sodium Aescinate inhibited the activation of microglia in Traumatic brain injury and lipopolysaccharide mouse models. Sodium Aescinate also inhibited the expression of inflammatory proteins in BV2 and primary microglia cells. Western blot experiment showed that SA inhibited the activation of NF-κB pathway in BV2 and primary microglia cells. Molecular docking results also showed that Sodium Aescinate had a better affinity with the core protein of the NF-κB pathway. Western blot identified that SA inhibited activation of NF-κB pathway. In Traumatic brain injury model and conditioned medium experiment, Sodium Aescinate pretreatment inhibited inflammation and protected neuron. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that the protection effects of Sodium Aescinate on neurons by inhibiting microglia activation through NF-κB pathway.
2022-12-01·Drug delivery2区 · 医学
Modification of sodium aescinate into a safer, more stable and effective water-soluble drug by liposome-encapsulation: an in vitro and in vivo study.
2区 · 医学
作者: Sifan Huang ; Xinyu Wang ; Mengmeng Liu ; Zhizhe Lin ; Wenqian Gu ; Haili Zhao ; Yanqiu Zhang ; Baoyue Ding ; Jiyong Liu ; Xin Wu ; Wei Fan ; Jianming Chen
Sodium aescinate (SA) is often used for intravenous (IV) injection owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-exudative, increasing venous tension, improving blood circulation and reducing swelling activities. However, the clinical application of SA is limited by strong irritation, short half-life and low bioavailability. To overcome these defects, we intended to modify SA by encapsualing it with liposomes . SA was mixed with a proper amount of phospholipid and lyophilized to prepare the liposome of sodium aescinate for injection (SA-Lip-I). Its physical properties, cumulative release and dilution stability were evaluated in vitro. Its pharmacodynamic characteristics were evaluated. Safety of SA-Lip-I was evaluated in terms of hemolysis, IV irritation and acute toxicity. The mean particle size of SA-Lip-I was 117.33±0.95 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.140±0.017, Zeta potential was -30.34±0.23 mv, The cumulative release of SA-Lip at 12 h was more than 80%, which met the release requirements of nanoparticles. SA-Lip-I was well stable in the four mediators and met the clinical medication requirements. In addition, SA-Lip-I had better efficacy than the SA-I and has a significant difference. Furthermore, SA-Lip-I did not induce hemolysis at 37°C, and produced by far milder venous irritation as compared with SA-I. In addition, LD50 of SA-Lip-I was 2.12 fold that of the commercial SA-I, with no obvious side effects.The modified SA-Lip-I is a promising preparation which can reduce the irritation and toxic side effects, improve the treatment effect to a certain extent, but greatly alleviate pain of the patient during treatment, achieving the optimal curative effect.