Contribution of F18-FDG PET/CT to the Early Assessment of Pazopanib Therapy Efficacy in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) is a rare tumor but can grow in different areas, for example, in 60% in limbs and about 20 % in retroperitoneum; and frequently is inoperable. Despite novel therapy in advanced cases survival is still short, approximately 12 month. Pazopanib oral angiogenesis inhibitor was recently shown as promising drug for advanced pretreated STS. Functional imaging especially F18-FDG PET/CT is a good modality for FDG avid tumor either for pre- / post- treatment evaluation or follow up. Early detection of treatment response to therapy by whole body FDG PET/CT allows for change of treatment as early as possible,when the tumor is non-responsive before serious side effects appear or before depletion of body resources. The aim of the study is to investigate the contribution of FDG PET/CT to assessment of treatment response.
Effects of a blend of essential oils, medium-chain fatty acids and a toxin-adsorbing mineral on diarrhea and gut microbiome of weanling pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli.
2区 · 农林科学
作者: Yijie He ; Cynthia Jinno ; Chong Li ; Sara L Johnston ; Hongyu Xue ; Yanhong Liu ; Peng Ji
A proprietary antimicrobial feed additive comprised of essential oils, medium-chain fatty acids, and a toxin-adsorbing mineral showed promising bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects in vitro. This study investigated the impacts of supplementing this blend on growth, gut microbiome, and enteric disease resilience in weaned pigs experimentally challenged with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Thirty-six weanling pigs (6.88 ± 0.30 kg body weight (BW)) blocked by weight and gender were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: control or dietary supplementation with 0.25% or 0.50% of the antimicrobial blend. This study lasted 28 d with 7 d before and 21 d after the first ETEC inoculation (d 0). All pigs were orally inoculated with 10 10 cfu F18+ ETEC/3-mL dose for 3 consecutive days. Growth performance data and diarrhea scores were recorded throughout the experiment. Fecal samples collected on d -7, 0, 7 and 21 post first inoculation (PI), and ileal digesta and mucosal tissue collected on d 21 PI were further analyzed for gut microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing. All data, except for frequency of diarrhea and gut microbiome, were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC MIXED of SAS. The Chi-square test was used for analyzing frequency of diarrhea. Gut microbiome data were analyzed using QIIME2 and visualized using the R program. Dietary supplementation of 0.25% or 0.5% of the antimicrobial blend increased (P < 0.05) feed efficiency on d 14 to 21 PI of ETEC and reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea during the study. Compared to the control group, adding 0.5% dietary antimicrobial blend increased (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Firmicutes but reduced (P < 0.05) Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in feces on d 7 PI. Pigs that received the antimicrobial blend also had higher (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae, but lower (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in feces on d 7 PI than pigs in control. In conclusion, supplementation of this antimicrobial blend at 0.5% reduced incidence of severe diarrhea in weaned pigs challenged with F18 ETEC and enhanced feed efficiency of weaned pigs at the last week of the experiment. Supplementation of this antimicrobial blend also modified the microbiota diversity in feces and ileal mucosa of weaned pigs.
Bactericidal activity and biofilm inhibition of F18 bioactive glass against Staphylococcus aureus
2区 · 工程技术
作者: Passos, Tathiane Ferroni ; Souza, Marina Trevelin ; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra ; de Souza, Clovis Wesley Oliveira
Antimicrobial treatment failure has been increasing at alarming rates. In this context, the bactericidal properties of biocompatible antimicrobial agents have been widely studied. F18 is a recently developed bioactive glass that presents a much wider working range when compared to other bioactive glasses, a feature that allows it to be used for coating metallic implants, sintering scaffolds or manufacturing fibers for wound healing applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro bactericidal and anti-biofilm activity of F18 glass as a powder and as a coating on steel samples, and to explore the effects of its dissolution products at concentrations from 3 mg/mL to 50 mg/mL against the Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms. Furthermore, we intend to verify whether changes in the medium pH could influence the bactericidal activity of F18. The results indicated that F18 presented bactericidal activity in preformed S. aureus and MRSA biofilms, reducing more than 6 logs of the viable cells that remained in contact with 50 mg/mL for 24 h. Moreover, an anti-biofilm activity was observed after 12 h of direct contact, with a drop of more than 6 logs of the viable bacterial population. Neutralization of the F18 solution pH decreased its bactericidal efficacy. These results indicate that the F18 glass could be considered as an alternative material for controlling and treating infections by S. aureus.
2020-11-27·Pharmaceutics3区 · 医学
Topical Delivery of Carvedilol Loaded Nano-Transfersomes for Skin Cancer Chemoprevention.
3区 · 医学
作者: Mengbing Chen ; Md Abdullah Shamim ; Ayaz Shahid ; Steven Yeung ; Bradley T Andresen ; Jeffrey Wang ; Vijaykumar Nekkanti ; Frank L Meyskens ; Kristen M Kelly ; Ying Huang
The β-blocker carvedilol has been shown to prevent skin carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Since systemic absorption of the β-blocker may cause cardiovascular disturbance, we developed a carvedilol loaded transfersome for skin-targeted delivery. Transfersomes were prepared using phospholipids and surfactants at various ratios and characterized. One formulation (F18) selected for further analysis was composed of carvedilol, soy phosphatidylcholine, and Tween-80 at a ratio of 1:3:0.5, which had a particle size of 115.6 ± 8.7 nm, a zeta potential of 11.34 ± 0.67 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency of 93.7 ± 5.1%. F18 inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells at non-toxic concentrations, while only high concentrations induced cytotoxicity in JB6 P+ and human keratinocytes HaCaT. Compared to the free drug, F18 released through the dialysis membrane and permeated through the porcine ear skin at a slower rate, but similarly depositing the drug in the epidermis and dermis of the skin. Consistently, surface application of F18 on reconstructed full-thickness human skin showed slower drug permeation, while it suppressed ultraviolet-induced DNA damage, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. These data indicate that transfersome is a promising topical delivery system of carvedilol for preventing ultraviolet-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.